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Building design methods

Building design: main stages

Any building project begins with the pre-project preparation stage: it includes the collection of the necessary information and the systematization of data.

This is followed by the following stages:

  • Drawing up an assignment for the design of a building or structure.
  • Collection of initial permits.
  • Performing engineering surveys at the site of the future construction of an object (building or structure).
  • Development of basic technical solutions (BTS).
  • Development of project documentation: this is necessary to obtain the appropriate approvals and pass the examination.
  • Expertise of design documentation.

What are the design methods

Design methods are divided according to the type of design (one-stage and two-stage), according to the level of detail of the project and according to technological features. Let's take a quick look at these options.

One-step and two-step design methodology

One-step design

The peculiarity of one-stage design is that working and design documentation are prepared in parallel. In the course of this design method, design decisions are made simultaneously with the formation of documentation for the construction object. Thus, you can start building the facility immediately after receiving a positive expert opinion.

One-stage design can provide a 2-fold reduction in the preparation time for project documentation, cutting costs in half. But do not forget about the risks of probable errors, which will then require improvements, an increase in the design time and an increase in costs. Therefore, this method is recommended to be used for overhaul or construction of standard structures, the construction experience of which is already available (see also the classification by technological features).

Two-stage design

This method consists of two steps. First, the project of the object is developed, and only after that the working documentation is prepared. After that, the project undergoes an examination. Only after a positive conclusion, the development of working drawings of the object begins. This method is recommended when you design technically complex buildings and structures.

Typical and serial design of buildings

Typical project

In such projects, ready-made and often already proven solutions are used. When designing, the variability of the standard sizes of parts and elements is minimized. However, the objects themselves may differ in area, exterior design, etc.

Serial project

If the buildings differ in types, number of storeys, have differences in the materials used for finishing, decoration, etc., but at the same time the same type of layout and the same material for the manufacture of supporting structures, this option is called serial design.

Architectural design methods: classification by technological features

Graphic design method

The graphical method involves representing a building or structure using descriptive geometry. The method is used not only for finding ideas when you develop a project, but also when you work on detailed design of specific building elements.

Model-layout method

This method is used to compose volumes and create volumetric models of structures in space.

Layout-graphic method

This method provides the rational interaction of graphic material and compositional thinking with the scaling of design objects.

BIM design

The use of BIM technologies allows you to combine the advantages of the above methods, bringing all the data into a single digital environment, which not only provides visualization of the project and minimizes the likelihood of collisions, but also significantly expands the possibilities for collaboration of all project participants at all stages of the project life cycle.

IM Consult specialists will help you to choose IT solutions that are optimal for your project, and will implement these solutions in your enterprise. If necessary, experts from IM Consult will conduct training for your employees both in person and through video lessons. Consulting and training is possible at all stages of the project.


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