Today, in the design and construction of buildings, it is more important than ever for engineers and architects to work in a single information environment. Technologies that ensure the coordinated functioning of all components at each stage of construction already exist. Andrey Mikhailov, partner and chief designer of the "Krupny Plan" bureau, talks about how it works and why many buildings cannot be designed and built without the use of information technology.
Alternative to drawing
An information model is not just a graphical three-dimensional representation of a building, as someone might think. This is a large-scale database, where various properties of building elements are reflected in numerical, graphic, and text form. In a BIM model, you can see everything: an image of a building from the inside and outside, what materials it should be built from, who produced these materials and how much they cost. At the first stage, the object as a whole is formed, then a three-dimensional model of all building elements (space-planning solutions, facades, engineering systems, etc) is created.
BIM technologies significantly speed up the design and construction process. Often repeated engineering solutions (for example, in the construction of residential buildings) BIM technologies are made automatic. Another area where information modeling can be useful is in building remodeling. The fundamental difference from traditional methods of work in this case is that the information model becomes the primary, instead of the architectural concept. To obtain reliable data on the state of all structural elements and facades of the building, laser scanning is performed, then the resulting three-dimensional model of the building is used in the development of a reconstruction project. The use of the information model in the course of work does not end there. The information entered into the model is constantly updated. If the model is quite generalized when developing the concept of a building, then the design stage already requires a description of each element, its physical properties. Later, when preparing tenders, parameters are entered into BIM that help to estimate the cost of materials: manufacturer, article, code according to the classifier.
Information modeling gives developers a lot: it allows solving problems of intersecting communications, automatically generating a plan of engineering systems, calculating the volume of construction and installation work with high accuracy, and automatically checking all solutions for compliance with standards. BIM is used not only in the construction of a building, but also in its operation. The schedule of maintenance of engineering networks, information about the state of the building and the need for major repairs, replacement of meters or pipes is entered in the information model and all these data are available to the management company.
Some modern projects could not have been created without the use of 3D information models due to their complex geometry. For example, the world famous buildings of the architect Zaha Hadid. In Moscow, projects implemented with the help of BIM include, in particular, a new multifunctional complex near the Teply Stan metro station - this year it was included in the short-list of the WAF award, which is called the architectural Oscar. The building has a very unusual rugged shape, complex facade elements. The upper part is a sculptural object. It would be impossible to create such a structure solely by methods of descriptive geometry.
The personnel problem
BIM technology has fundamentally changed the design process, complicated it. There is now a strong demand in the industry for specialists who can work with information modeling programs. So far, there are not many highly qualified specialists in BIM and they work for a lot of money. The cost of the required equipment is also very high. Errors in working with information models can cause great damage to the entire project and lead to alterations, difficulties in work later. The best way to solve the problem is to train your own specialists: create a BIM department with architects, engineers, programmers. Free tutorials can make your job easier.
Where is BIM leading? About virtual reality
Japanese Starbucks has developed a project for a large-scale redevelopment of its coffee shops - more than 1200 shops. Japanese architects decided to visualize information models from the BIM system. As a result, information models were transferred to the virtual reality system, and this significantly accelerated the decision-making process on the project
Japanese Starbucks has developed a project for a large-scale redevelopment of its coffee shops - more than 1200 shops. Japanese architects decided to visualize information models from the BIM system. As a result, information models were transferred to the virtual reality system, and this significantly accelerated the decision-making process on the project.
Virtual reality technologies can be effectively used in construction. By VR, developers can better plan different aspects of a project, lower costs, improve safety and speed up workflows. An example is Layton Construction. The company saved $ 250,000 on the construction of a medical center by replacing traditional layouts with virtual ones. VR technology has also made it easier to work with documents, so documents were submitted two months ahead of schedule.
The use of mobile devices in the construction process allows using of AR technology - the imposition of virtual elements on reality. With the help of glasses and augmented reality helmets, information models can be transferred directly to the construction site. Builders see the object through and make fewer mistakes.
Date of publication: 20.11.2019